The purpose of this investigation was to understand the metabolic adaptations to a short-term (5 days), isocaloric, high-fat diet (HFD) in healthy, young males.
Two studies were undertaken with 12 subjects. Study 1 investigated the effect of the HFD on skeletal muscle substrate metabolism and insulin sensitivity. Study 2 assessed the metabolic and transcriptional responses in skeletal muscle to the transition from a fasted to fed state using a high-fat meal challenge before and after 5 days of the HFD.
Study 1 showed no effect of a HFD on skeletal muscle metabolism or insulin sensitivity in fasting samples. Study 2 showed that a HFD elicits significant increases in fasting serum endotoxin and disrupts the normal postprandial excursions of serum endotoxin, as well as metabolic and transcriptional responses in skeletal muscle. These effects after 5 days of the HFD were accompanied by an altered fasting and postprandial response in the ratio of phosphorylated- to total-p38 protein. These changes all occurred in the absence of alterations in insulin sensitivity.
Our findings provide evidence for early biological adaptations to high-fat feeding that proceed and possibly lead to insulin resistance.
Obesity (Silver Spring). 2015 Apr;23(4):720-4. Early skeletal muscle adaptations to short-term high-fat diet in humans before changes in insulin sensitivity.